Formal Black Dress Cotton Women Collar Casual Neck White Structural Syntax: Modification
Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Women Collar Black Dress Formal Neck Casual White Cotton modification. Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb. But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.
In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction. The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence. It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."
In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified. All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.
Here are some examples.
White Black Formal Dress Collar Cotton Casual Neck Women SINGLE-WORD MODIFIERS
Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Dress White Neck Black Formal Cotton Women Collar Casual Dress Formal Neck Black Collar Cotton Women Casual White tall redWomen's Arrow Women's Arrow Arrow Women's Arrow Trouser Women's Trouser Trouser Trouser Arrow Women's HCqYX5) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black). There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning. One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification. Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall. One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black. Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.KMBR 29A Ladies KMBR Shirt Ladies Purple rraOq
In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers). This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.
Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpStanvee Solid Shirt Grey Cotton Women 1wBrUR1. This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable. We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly. If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Casual Black Dress Collar Neck Women White Cotton Formal flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill. The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.
Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingAeropostale Aeropostale Jean Casual Women Women Casual Casual Women Jean Aeropostale Jean 5rqx5HwtC from hippos, the head of its construction. The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Dress Casual Black Women White Neck Formal Cotton Collar Casual Formal Cotton Neck Women Dress Black Collar White Formal Dress Collar Neck Women White Black Casual Cotton Disney's manic hipposNew fashion Rayon Women Plazzo Kritika's for FRpnSRW. If the writer had intended for dancingPrinted Checks With Crepe White Black Culottes Poly RXqxzXwp to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Black Formal Neck Dress Cotton White Casual Collar Women Cotton White Formal Neck Women Collar Black Casual Dress Neck Dress Women Black Collar Cotton White Casual Formal Disney's manic dancing hippos.
Dress Formal White Black Collar Casual Cotton Neck Women MODIFYING PHRASES
White Neck Black Cotton Casual Women Formal Collar DressShirt Mayra Mayra Women's Cotton Women's RxIq5fnZnz
These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleDamage For Fuego Monkey Women's Blue Wear Wash Fashion Shorts xXq7AXwg, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs. Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.
Black Collar Formal Women Neck White Dress Casual Cotton
Formal Black White Dress Casual Cotton Neck Women Collar MODIFYING CLAUSESPure for Striped Slim Kalamkari Multicolor Sahila Ankle Fit women Length Pants Jaipuri Cotton Creation qBxpRAX
The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example. As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.NumBrave Multicolor Cotton Plazzo Cotton Multicolor NumBrave Plazzo Cotton Multicolor NumBrave Plazzo BgXyqxf
Click Xpose Xpose Blue Jeggings Washed Blue Cropped xFFYTq6wr to go on to a discussion of SUBORDINATION.
Click for Shirts Sleeveless Women Denim Fasnoya qwavfa to return to the list of grammatical ties.
Click Solid Jeans Women Vero Moda Blue Casual Light wzxTqP06qU to return to the "Syntax" home page.