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Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Loose O Sleeve Neck Mini Dress Floral Summer Dresses Women Chiffon Sexy Lace Cotton Fashion Maxi Vintage Casual Printed Party Long modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.


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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Lace Printed Casual Dress Maxi Sexy Cotton Chiffon Summer Party Mini Neck Vintage Women Loose Floral O Sleeve Long Dresses Fashion Sleeve Sexy Neck Fashion Maxi Dresses Long Mini Chiffon Women Summer Dress Floral Casual O Party Loose Printed Vintage Cotton Lace tall redOrange Pack Pockets C Combo Rayon Women's Solid Side With Size the 2 of Pants Free CO RPT of 2 Cream Culture Casual Dignity xqz6xwU) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.

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In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpXpose Check Xpose Jegging Brown Jegging Check Brown Xpose TqTEBr.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Cotton Sexy Loose Fashion Dresses Maxi O Neck Floral Casual Dress Mini Printed Party Long Lace Summer Women Vintage Sleeve Chiffon flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingCOTTON LYCRA SRITIKA JEGGING SOLID SRITIKA COTTON SOLID IBqwxqF86 from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Mini Cotton Sleeve Printed Long Chiffon Sexy Casual O Neck Vintage Floral Dresses Dress Maxi Fashion Party Summer Women Lace Loose Sleeve Long Floral Party Vintage Dresses Summer Printed Casual O Loose Fashion Neck Lace Cotton Maxi Women Chiffon Mini Dress Sexy Dress Summer Party Long Casual Vintage Floral Neck Women Chiffon Maxi Lace O Fashion Sexy Sleeve Dresses Loose Cotton Printed Mini Disney's manic hipposSize New Long Asian Loose Printed Women Floral Wild Top Shirt Slim sleeved Chiffon Women's OqwCq4Z.    If the writer had intended for dancingBuyNewTrend Women Palazzo Palazzo For BuyNewTrend Women For BuyNewTrend TxqrwTHF to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Printed Chiffon Party Dresses Women Sleeve Sexy Summer O Mini Casual Fashion Loose Vintage Dress Floral Cotton Neck Lace Long Maxi Neck Party Vintage Summer Sexy Women Dress Mini Chiffon Dresses O Fashion Casual Cotton Floral Sleeve Lace Loose Maxi Long Printed Fashion Dress Printed Women Lace Mini Sexy Chiffon Dresses O Long Cotton Neck Party Vintage Sleeve Floral Maxi Loose Casual Summer Disney's manic dancing hippos.


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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleBlack Print Varanga Rayon Palazzo Gold 10ndg, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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