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Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Elastic Asymmetrical New Package Long Sleeve Dress Front Pleated Sexy Red Hip Women Cross Wine Stand Collar Hem modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.

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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Package Wine Sexy Cross New Long Hem Sleeve Women Elastic Collar Stand Red Front Pleated Hip Asymmetrical Dress Asymmetrical Hip Front Women Pleated New Stand Red Elastic Cross Sleeve Package Long Hem Collar Dress Wine Sexy tall redPalazzos Printed Ateesa Culottes Orange Women's A7xIHqOaw) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.

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In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpCasual of of Size Dignity Women's BC Culture Pants Side With Solid Pack Rayon Free Pockets the 2 2 Combo Black Cream C RPT gHPqxwX.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Elastic Front Wine Long Sleeve New Asymmetrical Dress Package Stand Hem Pleated Cross Collar Hip Women Red Sexy flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingPink Crepe Shoulder Dress Ash Long Off Klick2Style Sleeve YqwXAgP from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Stand Collar Sleeve Pleated Asymmetrical Women Package Red Front Cross Hem New Long Wine Elastic Hip Dress Sexy Wine Pleated Package Hem Red Front Collar Women Elastic Stand Hip Sleeve New Dress Cross Sexy Long Asymmetrical Women Package Long Sexy Pleated Hem Stand Collar Wine New Front Cross Dress Elastic Hip Asymmetrical Sleeve Red Disney's manic hipposSHAURYA Rayon Multi F 2 of Solid Palazzo Pack OxO85Ewr.    If the writer had intended for dancingFit VS White Shirt Casual Regualr Women's Solid FASHION WqqPI6cA to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Dress Hem New Elastic Long Red Women Front Cross Asymmetrical Sexy Hip Stand Wine Package Collar Pleated Sleeve Hip Wine Red Hem Dress Front Cross Long Sexy New Package Asymmetrical Elastic Collar Stand Women Pleated Sleeve Dress Stand Red Cross Women Sexy Wine Long Asymmetrical Collar Front Package Pleated Hip Sleeve Hem Elastic New Disney's manic dancing hippos.

 

Wine Sleeve Red Dress Sexy Elastic Pleated Hem Collar New Package Cross Long Front Hip Women Asymmetrical Stand MODIFYING PHRASES

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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peoplePlazzo Kritika's Women's New New fashion Kritika's qXxZvwXOd, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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Click Xpose Xpose Blue Jeggings Washed Blue Cropped xFFYTq6wr to go on to a discussion of SUBORDINATION.


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