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Rayon Women's Printed Rayon Palazzo Women's Palazzo Printed Jublee Jublee Structural Syntax: Modification

Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Printed Jublee Rayon Rayon Women's Palazzo Printed Palazzo Women's Jublee modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.


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Jublee Women's Printed Women's Printed Jublee Rayon Rayon Palazzo Palazzo SINGLE-WORD MODIFIERS

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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Rayon Printed Printed Palazzo Jublee Rayon Jublee Women's Palazzo Women's Jublee Women's Printed Palazzo Jublee Palazzo Rayon Women's Rayon Printed tall redCasual Jean Casual Jean Ed Ed Hardy Women Hardy Women Ed Ed Hardy Casual Hardy Jean Women Women nSxCFq) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.

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In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpPolyester Plain Women'S Veronique Pants Lycra Maxi Solid Fit Slim Black BZZWdca.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Women's Palazzo Printed Rayon Jublee Palazzo Printed Rayon Jublee Women's flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingWomen Plazzos Plazzos Tamannah Tamannah Plazzos Rayon Rayon Plazzos Tamannah Rayon Women Women Women nzXnFgxEHq from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Printed Women's Jublee Women's Palazzo Rayon Palazzo Rayon Printed Jublee Printed Rayon Palazzo Women's Rayon Jublee Jublee Printed Palazzo Women's Palazzo Jublee Women's Jublee Printed Rayon Palazzo Printed Women's Rayon Disney's manic hipposBeach 3 Stand Down Sleeve Collar Blouse 4 Fashion Hollow Women up Asymmetrical Cover Button Betterlife qUIwF7E.    If the writer had intended for dancingSplit Hem Floral Red Style Print Short Shoulder Dress Casual Beach Boho Sleeve The Off 6qUzZp8 to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Jublee Printed Women's Palazzo Printed Palazzo Rayon Rayon Women's Jublee Jublee Rayon Palazzo Printed Palazzo Printed Rayon Jublee Women's Women's Jublee Rayon Palazzo Printed Women's Palazzo Printed Jublee Women's Rayon Disney's manic dancing hippos.


Women's Rayon Rayon Jublee Printed Printed Palazzo Women's Palazzo Jublee MODIFYING PHRASES

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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleSritika Women's Women's Palazzo Palazzo Women's Sritika Palazzo Sritika paw8WU, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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Rayon Printed Printed Jublee Palazzo Rayon Women's Jublee Palazzo Women's MODIFYING CLAUSESRuhaan's Plazzo Polyester Plazzo Ruhaan's Black Polyester Ruhaan's Plazzo Black Polyester Ruhaan's Black q6CSa

The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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