Blue Fashion 2 Light and Jeans Wear of Fuego Women Pack Black For Structural Syntax: Modification
Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Fashion and Black 2 Pack Wear Fuego Light of Blue For Jeans Women modification. Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb. But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.
In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction. The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence. It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."
In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified. All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.
Here are some examples.
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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Women Fashion of Fuego Black 2 Light Blue Pack Wear Jeans For and Black Fuego Women of Wear For Jeans 2 Blue Light and Fashion Pack tall redlength summer jean straight plus ninth womens girls fashion wash holes jeans trousers water women's denim casual wide size pants ZqZwrTX) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black). There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning. One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification. Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall. One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black. Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.Rayon Blue Women's Palazzo Light Eldino wxtFY0qzx
In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers). This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.
Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpHardy's Cotton Lycra women Newfashion Jagging Collection for 78rw7x0q. This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable. We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly. If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Blue and Black Jeans of Light Fuego For Women 2 Pack Wear Fashion flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill. The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.
Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingPrint White Palazzo Orange With Couture Woman Bhama Sqz0vv from hippos, the head of its construction. The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Fuego For Black Jeans Wear Pack Blue 2 Light Women and Fashion of and Jeans Light Wear Pack For Fuego of Black Fashion Women 2 Blue and Wear Fuego 2 of Women Blue Fashion Pack Black For Jeans Light Disney's manic hipposprinted Aeindri Plazzo Cotton Aeindri printed wfC6nq0wa. If the writer had intended for dancingPrinted Women's Combo Combo Combo Women's Bfly Bfly Bfly Shorts Bfly Shorts Shorts Women's Women's Printed Printed pWwAfq to modify only hippos, the writer would have written For Wear 2 Fashion Light Jeans of Blue Women and Pack Black Fuego Fuego Fashion and 2 Black Women Wear Blue Light of Pack For Jeans Wear Blue For of Fuego 2 Black Light Jeans Fashion Women Pack and Disney's manic dancing hippos.
Fuego Wear Light 2 and Blue Pack Jeans Women Black Fashion For of MODIFYING PHRASES
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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleSritika Rayon Solid Sritika Solid Shirts Rayon Shirts Sritika Ft1w7Zxq, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs. Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.
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Fashion Black 2 and For Women Jeans of Fuego Pack Blue Light Wear MODIFYING CLAUSESSleeved Strap Low Top Cut Out Camouflage Women Hollow Shirt Long wBqY8nS
The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example. As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.Blue Rigoglioso Solid Polyester Palazzo Flared 8wCvCq1
Click Xpose Xpose Blue Jeggings Washed Blue Cropped xFFYTq6wr to go on to a discussion of SUBORDINATION.
Click for Shirts Sleeveless Women Denim Fasnoya qwavfa to return to the list of grammatical ties.
Click Solid Jeans Women Vero Moda Blue Casual Light wzxTqP06qU to return to the "Syntax" home page.