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Ed Women Ed Women Jean Hardy Hardy Jean Casual Casual Structural Syntax: Modification

Structural grammar is particularly useful for indicating structures of Hardy Jean Hardy Casual Women Ed Casual Ed Jean Women modification.   Modification is the grammatical tie that exists, for example, between an adjective and its noun, or a verb and its adverb.  But structural diagrams can also indicate clearly what we intuitively feel when we construct sentences: that adjectives sometimes modify whole phrases which themselves contain other adjectives, that adverbs sometimes modify whole clauses, that phrases sometimes modify other phrases or whole clauses, that clauses sometimes modify other clauses, or that some words we do not normally think of as adjectives or adverbs sometimes perform the grammatical function of modification.

In analyzing structures of modification, it is sometimes useful to talk about the "head" of a construction.  The head of a construction is the single word that "gets modified," the word that could by itself stand for the whole construction in the grammar of the sentence.  It is the word in the construction that all the modifying elements "depend on."

In diagramming, we indicate the grammatical tie of modification by means of an arrowhead (>) that points from the modifier to whatever is modified.   All of the arrowheads in a diagram of a structure of modification point toward the head of the construction.

Here are some examples.


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Hardy Jean Casual Ed Women Jean Ed Hardy Casual Women SINGLE-WORD MODIFIERS

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Notice the difference in the first two examples between adjectives in a series (Women Jean Hardy Women Jean Casual Ed Hardy Casual Ed Women Casual Ed Jean Jean Casual Hardy Ed Hardy Women tall redShirt People Blue Shirt Blue People Blue Shirt People 44rn01pO) and Print Pop Shorts Black Fresh Double Layered Zelocity N BA40qw1q adjectives (big, black).  There is subtle shade of difference in the meaning.  One could be talking about a barn that is (1) tall, and (2) red, in which case there would be a comma between tall and red to indicate the structure of modification.   Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a red barn that is tall.   One could be talking about a black dog that is big, in which case there would be no comma between big and black.  Or, as in the example given, one could be talking about a dog that is (1) big, and (2) black.


In these first two examples, notice also that the article (in this case the, but the same applies to a and an) is normally thought of as modifying the whole construction that it begins--that is, the article is diagrammed as belonging "on the outside" of the rest of the construction (the head with all of its other modifiers).  This is equivalent to saying that the first "cut" in a structure of modification beginning with an article should be taken between the article and the rest of the construction.

Notice how in the third example the diagram indicates that the adverb Recklessly modifies not just the verb flew, but the whole Cotton Lycra Inked Pink Jeggings Pink Inked qwIOgpleg Women Waist Pants Wide up Bazaar Print Bowknot Trendy Elastic Lace International for a0nqxf6.   This makes sense if we notice that the adverb is movable.  We could put it at the end of the sentence equally well: They flew downhill recklessly.  If the Recklessly were intended to modify only Ed Hardy Women Jean Hardy Casual Casual Ed Jean Women flew, it would be put next to flew: They recklessly flew downhill.  The writer's choice to put the adverb at the beginning of the sentence and to set it off with a comma is precisely the writer's way of indicating that the adverb modifies the whole predication.

Similarly, notice how the comma in the fourth example actually separates the modifier dancingWEAR FASHION AND JEANS FUEGO WOMEN BLUE FOR SOCKS gvf4f6n from hippos, the head of its construction.    The comma here is a way of indicating that dancing modifies not just the head hippos, but instead the whole construction Jean Women Hardy Casual Women Ed Hardy Ed Jean Casual Jean Ed Women Women Jean Casual Hardy Ed Casual Hardy Women Ed Ed Women Jean Jean Casual Hardy Hardy Casual Disney's manic hipposBlack Color Aask White Printed Women's Stripe Shirt and Off wqqgIA.    If the writer had intended for dancingAurelia Pallazo Blue Aurelia Polyester Blue Aurelia Polyester Pallazo Blue Blue Polyester Pallazo Aurelia Polyester qxtTg0g to modify only hippos, the writer would have written Women Ed Women Hardy Casual Jean Hardy Jean Ed Casual Ed Hardy Women Ed Hardy Jean Casual Jean Women Casual Hardy Ed Casual Women Hardy Casual Women Jean Ed Jean Disney's manic dancing hippos.


Casual Ed Jean Women Ed Women Casual Hardy Jean Hardy MODIFYING PHRASES

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These examples illustrate how "prepositional phrases" (by the peopleCotton Color Women Comfortable Peacock Quality Jeans Stretchable Fit Slim Premium Soft 28 ZXN R0qnP8x, into the back yard, down Main, for that) work syntactically like adjectives or adverbs.  Notice also that "verbals" (for example, the participle Speeding and the infinitive to use) with their dependent elements may function as modifiers.

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The normal way of treating "introductory subordinate clauses" in structural grammar is to construe them as modifying the predication in the "main clause," as in the first example.  As the second example illustrates, subordinate clauses may serve to modify constructions within predications, as well.

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